Other communist countries, such as East Germany, were essentially satellites of the U.S.S.R. that played a significant role during the Cold War but no longer exist. What were practiced were hybrid forms of socialism, including some that eclectically borrowed from Marxist-Leninist and Maoist theory. By that point, African socialism had long been out of vogue. Communism is a particular form of socialism. Communism is both a political system and an economic one. Communist China's … In a speech in 1967, Kwame Nkrumah argued that the term "African socialism" had become too vague to be useful. having been sporadic in Africa. However, nowhere on the continent was a strict form of communism ever practiced. In the first half of the 1950's, Communist concentration in Africa was largely confined to North Africa and it was only in the late 1950's, mostly in the early 1960's, that Russia started turning on the pressure in Africa south of the Sahara. A new book takes a closer look at the relationship between Africa and communism. Each country had its own version and there was no agreed-upon statement of what African socialism was. “Red Africa” at the Calvert 22 Foundation What the communists left in Africa. Communism in Africa can be analyzed along two dimensions: Communist movements that generally developed between the two world wars and were subjected to state repression and communism as a post-colonial state policy. Communist ideas have been prevalent in Africa since at least the early 20th century. Cold War relics dot the African continent from Ethiopia to Burkina Faso. In fact, former proponents of African socialism were already starting to turn against the idea in the mid-1960s.